Category Archives: walkability

Slowing Down is Age-Friendly

texting-while-driving

“Slowing down” is an age-friendly expression. But what if slowing down could actually be a good thing, and helped you live longer and better?

In the case of Aging and Transportation, slowing down, the traffic that is, carries benefits. 2015 was the deadliest driving year since 2008 with an estimated 38,300 deaths, and 4.4 million serious injuries (NHTSA data). While it may be coincidental, the four states that saw the biggest percentage rise in traffic deaths also have a surging population of aging Baby Boomers, namely Oregon, Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina.

Slowing down traffic speeds is particularly vital for aging Boomers, and others needing to cut back their driving. A primary reason is that reduced speed helps the older driver feel safer on the road, and it reduces the likelihood of injuring himself or an innocent bystander.

A car trip that takes them a few minutes longer will not be viewed as a deterrent. Here is the reason:

If a pedestrian is hit by a speeding driver at a default speed limit of 30 miles per hour (mph) there is a 30 percent chance that person will die. That number goes up to 80 percent if the driver is going 40 mph. At 20 mph, a safe speed limit for an urban area, there is a 98% chance the same pedestrian will live.  

A related reason for Boomers to support “slowing down” is that when roads reduce speeds they then become safer for all other transportation modes. In recent years the mode share for bicycles, walking, and transit has accelerated, particularly in urban areas. Although Millennials have led this trend, it bodes well for older people. Bike lanes and wider sidewalks unlock the streets to new modes. For seniors, this may encourage more travel on bike as well as short trips via battery operated scooters, small electric vehicles, golf carts, and other variants. Slower road speeds make these alternative vehicles more likely.

A third reason that slower speeds matter has to do with reaction time- an AAA site notes that during each mile driven- the average driver makes about 20 major decisions. Drivers have less than one-half second to react to avoid a potential collision. With advancing age, drivers have to manage slower reaction times, and often decreased muscular flexibility.  A lower speed limit gives the older driver a fraction of “time” to deal with the cognitive flood.

Meanwhile, there is a growing safety problem that plagues drivers of all ages. It is called “distracted walking.” Pedestrian injuries are spiking as more people walk, but are distracted from the pavement by their electronic gear and smartphones.   Lowering the speed limit gives drivers more time to react to something that crosses their threshold, like a pedestrian oblivious to a right turning car.  At some point the older pedestrian will be the one to amble, and the lower speed limit might help them safely transverse a wide, busy street.

“Slow” driving- an upper speed limit of 55 on the freeways, was introduced by the federal government in the 1970’s as a fuel saving measure, but raised to 65 mph in 1987.  Then, in 1995 Congress repealed the law, and returned the speed limit setting authority to the states.  Faster speed limits are the province of truckers, big states with dispersed populations, and anti-regulation groups.  The need for speed has also played well with advertisers that link fast cars to concepts like independence, performance, and sportiness.

But, “slow speed” is making a return, as it did in the 1970’s. This time it is an urban initiative. There is currently a council proposal to lower speeds in Boston, Mass. New York City lowered its default speed limit from the standard 30 mph to 24 mph in 2014.

Lowering the speed limit has more precedents. Drivers are accustomed to honoring reduced speeds around schools, hospitals, and in certain residential neighborhoods with school age children. Boomers can be pleased that their grandchildren are protected by lower speed limits in these special zones.

These same kids might be pleased if Grandma and Grandpa received equal protection. With a modicum of technology, cars can be programmed to travel at the posted speed and a smart chip can display speeding violations, or record them for a driver’s insurance company or “guardian.” Slowing down cars is now feasible- it is the driver’s who must also be won over. That may not be difficult since 21 percent of those  age 65 and older do not drive. The Boomers, who have isolated themselves in car dependent suburbs, will need to find ways to stay-on-the road.

The Multigenerational Garage

firegaragedoor

Multigenerational households are growing in number and that’s a noteworthy trend for an aging population. But, the multifamily garage may be the source for the most vital trend. Today, about 20% of seniors live in a multigen household and their travel patterns do not fit the norm. A travel behavior specialist uncovered an unusual pattern.

But, first, what is leading different generations to live under one household?

On the surface, generations living side-by-side are “made-for-TV”,  like the fictional Ewings of Dallas who lived under one roof on the their expansive Southfork ranch. A recent WSJ story reinforces the growing demand from the well-to-do. They  are remodeling their “Next Gen“ homes with dual kitchens and side-by-side amenities.

MULTIGENERATIONAL TRENDS

But the reality that drives most multigenerational housing is less glamorous.  The rate of household formation among those 18 to 24 and 25-34 has been declining for some time- probably, say researchers at  Pew Social Trends, due to lower paying jobs or the lack of jobs. Meanwhile, the marriage rate in the U.S. has declined steadily, and single people are more likely to “stay at home.” A third factor driving the multigenerational household is immigration- modern immigrants are more inclined to live under one roof.

The number of multifamily homes is growing. In 2008, about 16% of the U.S. population lived in a family household that contained at least two adult generation or a grandparent and at least one other generation (Pew). By 2012, the rate was 18%, and Pew notes that it continues to rise, even as the economy recovers.

The multigenerational household may be a good trend for aging Baby Boomers, but for the current cohort of elders, the signals are mixed. Most analysts have been looking upstairs, and writing about the economic and cultural factors that bring these families together.  But the most interesting story may be in the garage.

ARE MULTIGENERATIONAL ELDERS MOBILE?

Do multifamily households tend to share transportation and does it become easier for the oldest member of the household (seniors) to keep their mobility?

According to travel specialist Nancy McGuckin  transportation in the multigenerational household is quite distinct from other household travel patterns.  She analyzed data from the 2009 National Household Travel Survey- approximately 8% of the sampled households qualified.

A key finding is that compared to all people 65 and older, the elderly parent in a multi-generational household is more likely to have a medical condition that makes it difficult to travel and is unlikely to be a driver. Although over one in five (21%) aged 65 and older do not drive, that rate is three times higher for elderly parents living with their adult children.  In the multigenerational household, 64% do not drive.

The reason these older people do not drive seems to be health related. In the multi-generational household,  51.5% report a travel disability, a medical condition that makes it difficult to travel outside the home. That number is nearly double the 26.7% percentage in the general population.

OF HEARTH, HEALTH, AND HOME

McGuckin’s transportation study points us to an interesting,  but hidden, link between health and home. If the elderly parent owns the multi-generational home, i.e. has title to it, there may be further complications. It would disrupt the younger generation to sell, so these elders will be less able to afford assisted living, a nursing home or additional medical care. In more than one way, they lack for alternatives and are literally, more housebound.

Hence, it would be useful to map the geographical locations of these multigenerational household.   A post World War II suburban home, with a sprawling layout and ample square footage, is likely to be beyond the reach of public transit and the Dial-A-Van. But, it might appeal to a large family needing schools and access to highways (for jobs).  An earlier style of multigenerational housing, the triple decker, often found in New England mill towns, might be closer to a bus stop and walking distance to a hospital.

 

Synergy to Walk: Try Uber and Lyft

“Lyft red wagon pink mustache” Jeff Koterba April 29, 2014

Walk is a four letter word, as are Uber and Lyft….they all have synergy…helping people complete their journeys.

Although Uber and Lyft arrive in the same package as your household vehicle, on four wheels that is, they function differently in the transportation mix. They provide pedestrians with a back-up plan and a safety net, since phone apps show these carriers in geographical reach, circling about. Pedestrians no longer have to travel off-the-grid. This is as much a cultural change as a transportation one.  

But, walking trips are hard to measure- they often slip under or through the mode  count. That is because trips taken on foot are too short, or too hard to remember, or just too hard to enumerate. No matter- whether counted or not, walking trips are the critical ones. They keep people healthy and mobile, without needing to enroll in a gym membership. Walking trips are literally the foundation for a connected, citizen-responsive community. They are, literally, the “feet on the ground.” And walking is also the most inexpensive form of travel- it requires no cost, except a comfortable pair of shoes.

Part One:

Of Packages and Doctors

Sometimes walking is a one-way option…but the round-trip is not. The most likely scenario here is that the destination, say a food-store, is a reasonable distance away. But, on the return trip walking is not feasible. On the return, the pedestrian may have acquired a bag of groceries. Or, it might start to rain.  So, they need a backup plan.

Alternatively, if the trip involved a visit to a medical office or doctor, the pedestrian might be light-headed and needs to return home quickly. The point is that lots of one-way trips on foot make sense, but we often travel by car instead in both directions because we are not sure about the feasibility of the return trip.

Again, taxis make sense for the return- but since taxis tend to cluster around airports,  concert venues, and big office buildings- it requires some planning and wait time for them to show up. In low density areas, the waiting time can be considerable. But, in addition to time, there is simply the inconvenience and cost. No one who walks to Trader Joes and gets two or three bags of groceries wants to pay a cab fare that matches their grocery bill.  

There is tangible data, at least for Los Angeles, that Uber and Lyft drivers accommodate short, local trips, with more agility and cheaper fares than conventional taxi companies. These TNC (transportation network company) drivers are on-the-road part-time and seem to fill in the transportation gaps left by the bigger medallion firms.

 

Part Two:

Safety after Dark, Comfort in New Places

There is another reason that Uber and Lyft encourage people to take more walking trips, but it is less obvious than the heavy bag of groceries. It has to do with safety and security; somewhat like the fear people experience at bus shelters, due to the uncertainty of the wait time or worry about crime.

For people who do not regularly take a stroll, getting outside their immediate boundaries  can be “scary”- in the sense that it is unknown. They are not really sure what the sidewalk conditions are, perhaps a mile or two up the street, and whether they will feel “safe” in   new neighborhoods they encounter on foot….particularly if it is getting late, and there are not many other people around. In the past, summoning a taxi to such places could be somewhat of an ordeal. The taxi might be out-of-range, and then slow to show up. Taxis  don’t frequently circle places people walk…like hiking trails, bike/ped walkways, and scenic overlooks.

With a TNC, like Uber or Lyft, there are likely to be more accessible vehicles in the neighborhood, and the walker- straying afar- is more likely to be picked up. More mundanely, the college student who walks into campus in the morning but stays all day and into the evening to study at the library, now has a safe way to journey home after dark.  When taxis were the only option, people felt compelled to drive, even if they only need one-half the ride. With a TNC, they can be more secure that there is a ride back home.

Sum Up:

Until now, there has been a lot of dialogue by planners about Lyft and Uber taking transit share, competing with transit providers, and perhaps putting them out of business. The bigger picture is that Lyft and Uber are complements of many different transportation modes, and that includes pedestrian trips. It is simplistic to expect that people substitute one transportation mode for another. In real life, real people recombine, and remix…and that entirely reinvents transportation. The TNCs, Lyft and Uber, may bring ignite entirely new ideas “underfoot.”

 

The Autonomous Car: Double Blessing for Boomers

myscoot

The Autonomous Car will be a double blessing for Baby Boomers, the generation that is currently between ages 51 and 69.

Transportation experts know that the autonomous car is well suited to aging Baby Boomers, because it will keep them mobile, and enable them to travel- even when their health or eyesight fail. This is an essential problem, since even today 21 percent of the population over 65 does not drive.

The double blessing is more subtle. As people age, they have basic needs to get outdoors, to exercise, amble safely, and stay on their feet.  Older American tourists often comment that they walk extensively when they travel abroad, but have difficulty continuing the habit at home.  

MAKING STREETS SAFER..FOR PEDS

Here is where the autonomous car will help- by making the streets safer for all users, not only for drivers, but also for pedestrians and mobility devices, like the street legal scooter. Traffic engineers seem to design streets with the reaction times of an average 40 year old in mind. But, with an aging population, there are new baselines for the autonomous car to accommodate.

For example, an elderly person may require more time to cross a busy street. The elderly person may be tired, slow on their feet or riding a scooter.  At a busy intersection they may find the standard 15 or 30 second pedestrian walk cycle to be daunting. So, through no faulty of their own, they are stranded in the intersection when the light turns green. A car operated by a human driver will honk, swerve and hopefully, slide to a stop. The autonomous car will detect a pedestrian (age neutral) in the intersection and not move.

FIRST MILE/LAST MILE

The autonomous car accommodates this. Another need that comes with age is  “first mile/last mile” assisted travel. Older pedestrians may have the best intentions to get out, walk about, and keep mobile but first they need to get to a safe place… with sidewalks. Many Boomers, who plan to age-in-place live in modern suburbs that lack sidewalks, walkable paths or trails. They must first travel by car to reach a safe place to exercise. But what if they are not capable or able drivers? The autonomous car will help them cover the “first mile” and bring them to the walking track.

STREET LEGAL VEHICLES AND THE DARK

There is a third transportation baseline. A growing number of users, mostly older,  employ street legal electric scooters, electric driven wheelchairs, and in the future “Uni-Cub/Honda” like robots. Operators of these devices, riding on public streets, know how dangerous it is for them to co-mingle with bigger vehicles. In the daytime their mobility vehicles are barely registered by regular drivers, and at night they seem to be invisible. The NHTSA (see link below) reports that 72 percent of pedestrian fatalities take place when it is dark outside. The autonomous car will make mobility safer for riders of scooters and wheelchairs. It will detect them in all lighting conditions, and faster than human-drivers.

In the current configuration of sidewalks and city streets, older pedestrians face many risks. The risks come from driver’s who do not obey speed limits, drivers distracted by phones and dashboards, and simply human error.  The National Highway Traffic Safety  Administration  (NHTSA) reports that in an estimated 94 percent of crashes, human error is the critical cause. Vehicle related factors are the critical reason in only 2 percent. They report that in 2014 there were 4,844 pedestrian deaths, and 66,000 injured.  On average, a pedestrian was killed every 2 hours and injured every 8 minutes in traffic crashes. (Note: across all age groups). Two final numbers: Nineteen percent of the pedestrian fatalities in 2013, and an estimated 10 percent of those injured were people 65 and older.

THE DIFFUSION CURVE.. SAFE, THEN SAFER!

The autonomous car has a diffusion curve of some import. As more of these vehicles substitute for conventional cars, there will be fewer accidents between cars, and reduced pedestrian/biker/scooter collisions. Then, at some “tipping point” when autonomous cars outnumber conventional vehicles, the safety factor will grow exponentially as the rules of the road change. The results could lead to lower speed limits, reduced travel lanes, safer curb cuts, and the like. Streets will be less dangerous and more functional for both cars and people. Hence the double blessing.

This is only good news to an aging Baby Boomer population. Boomers are known as a  generation that continually reinvents itself and “rethinking mobility” can be their last and greatest reinvention. There is no reason to expect Boomers tol remain wedded to cars with steering wheels, when an autonomous car promises to extend the longevity of their “vehicle years.”  Even more importantly, the autonomous car will extend the longevity of their “non-vehicle years” and help them get out and about as pedestrians.

Aging in Place: More Costs for Boomers

ecohealthA widely held belief is that it is best to age-in-place. The rationale goes like this: people are more comfortable in the house they know; surrounded by familiar objects and routines; old age is not a time to make big changes. Baby Boomers say that they plan to age-in-place, but they have not thought out the basis.

THE TRUE COST OF AGING-IN-PLACE…

In a recent blog, we suggest that Baby Boomers might find that the desire to age-in-place is in conflict with their need to stay “wellderly” (well+elderly). The suburbs do not contribute to a healthy lifestyle when residents are more sedentary, exercise less, and have more difficulty staying connected. If retirees become house-bound, they can suffer from more anxiety and depression. Baby Boomers are being sold a bill of goods about aging-in-place if they think that renovations like grab bars, non-slip floors, and extra lighting  are panacea to age-in-place. If the Baby Boomers choose to age-in-place in suburbia, they will come “head to head” with their lifestyle choices. 

MAKING GOOD CHOICES AT THE NEIGHBORHOOD LEVEL

Meanwhile, there is research from a different arena that informs us about the importance of making good choices at the neighborhood level. An University of Pittsburgh study conducted in Amsterdam (and reported in an open access journal called PLOS ONE), compared residents (of all ages) who lived in different types of neighborhoods. Neighborhoods were rated on a scale that assessed noise levels, vandalism, and an unsafe feeling when walking alone.

After controlling for outside factors, the researchers found that people who lived in “bad” neighborhoods were biologically older by about 12 years than those who lived in “safer” areas. The researchers measured the length of telomeres, which are thought to be a marker of aging cells. Telemeres are described as protective caps on the ends of chromosomes; they shorten with each cell division. At some critical length, the cell stops dividing or dies. The length of telomeres were measured in this study. They key finding, associated with locality, is this:  the subjects with shorter telomeres resided in the less safe neighborhoods with more crime or noise.

LINKING NEIGHBORHOODS AND HEALTHY AGING

Scientists are looking for links between the length of telomeres, weight, stress levels and physical mobility.  The research is too nascent for Baby Boomers to be asking their real-estate agent to report “telomeres scores” for different homes. However, they can use a short-cut to assess whether they should age-in-place or move. It is called walkability. If they can safely and enjoyably access places on foot like stores, community centers, and recreation, it is probably a neighborhood where telomeres are long, drive time by auto is short, and aging-in-place is going to be a healthy option.

The True Cost of Aging in Place

ecohealthIt is unsettling to think that aging-in-place can compromise your health. But, over the long run, it might. When Boomers wake up to the true cost of staying put, aging in suburbia may become an anachronism, a relic from their old, unhealthy days.

Twenty years ago, the Boomer mantra was to settle in safe, child-friendly neighborhoods. The mantra is changing as aging Boomers seek neighborhoods that will increase their activity levels, decrease stress, and help them stay “wellderly (well+ elderly) longer.

Keeping “wellderly” is not a new aspiration. Boomers like to think that they are healthy and, as a generation, they have embraced active lifestyles, gym memberships, and organic/healthy food choices. More than 1 in 3 say that they have a regular exercise schedule and the fastest-growing age group purchasing health club members are those age 55+.

BOOMERS AND HEALTH DATA

Despite this outward embrace, the wellness outcomes are not positive. Boomers are less healthy than the generation before them. (Some of this may be a reporting issue- as health data is now more carefully monitored). A 2006 National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) study found the psychiatric rate to be 21 percent among Boomers, compared with eight percent for the previous cohort. It was also found that 60% of 51 to 56 year old Boomer men born from 1948 to 1953 had chronic health problems, compared with 53% of the cohort born from 1936 to 1941 at the same ages. The Boomer generation is more likely than their parents to suffer from obesity, high blood pressure and high cholesterol.

The sobering statistic is that only 13 percent of Baby Boomers reported being in excellent health compared with 32% of those in the previous generation, and 52 percent of Boomers said they got no regular physical activity compared with 17% of their parents at the same age.

This is a generation that smokes less than their parents and has access to more comprehensive medical care, so what is going on?

SEDENTARY HABITS TAKE THEIR TOLL

The likely culprit is that Boomers are more sedentary- they walk less and drive more. Workers in the U.S. have an average commute time of 50 + minutes, shopping is spread out over a small number of superstores serving a bigger region, and, 2009 travel data estimates Americans make, on average, 470 car trips to stores each year. In other large economies, like Germany, car transportation is less ingrained in everyday activities, so seniors walk and bike more and that keeps their weight off. Sitting in cars is not good for the waistline: in fact, the most obese workers in the US are in the transportation industry- truck drivers, followed by bus drivers, and the like. But, time spent in cars does not tell the full story. Baby Boomers are often obsese  and have high cholesterol because of their life-styles and food choices.

IS IT HEALTHY TO AGE-IN-SUBURBIA?

If the Baby Boomers choose to age-in-place in suburbia, they will eventually come head to head” with their lifestyle choices. Although they plan to drive to the gym or yoga class, or do miles on an indoor running track, these recreational activities are seldom sustained over the longer run. Experts on aging-in-place foresee the ability to order things in, and have robotic help. But, staying indoors is likely to contribute to waistline woes, and fuel depression and anxiety.

So, the Baby Boomers will be facing-up to the health consequences of choosing to age-in-place. Aging consultants like to insist that modifying the home- things like installing grab bars, non-slip surfaces, and extra lighting will be the panacea. Literally, this is a bill of goods. The real need, for self-sufficiency, independence, and exercise- must take place at the neighborhood level. When health becomes the priority- it will hold more sway than keeping the now-empty family home and perhaps be more coveted than vacations, luxury cars, and appetizing restaurant meals.

Aging in Suburbia-Anew

densityBaby Boomers who want to Age in Suburbia might find a new way to do so:  they will be able to cut back on their driving, but still be near the center of their favorite neighborhood and stores. The new paradigm is called suburban density. Builders of shopping centers, office parks and malls are learning to blend. Their new building sites will co-mingle apartments (or condos), office buildings, and retail centers.  The design is borrowed from the cities, but customized for open spaces.  One of the key design elements is to circle these new dense suburban centers with better connections for pedestrians and bicyclists.

An example of “suburban density” comes from a development underway in a suburb of Indianapolis, called Keystone.  According to the Wall St. Journal, the developer plans a 198 unit luxury apartment building, next to an existing shopping center. Across the street is an (existing) upscale mall. The three properties will be connected by wider sidewalks, and with an intention to add a one-mile long trail that will loop around an adjacent lake.

It is not that suburban density has not been tried before- but it seemed to begin with the car at its center. So, the linkages between buildings depended upon driving from place to place, even if they were just ¼ of a mile, or less distance apart.  Older suburbs like Silver Spring, Maryland and Stamford, Connecticut come to mind. Zoning played a big role in the transportation problems- if the office building was isolated from home, and home was isolated from the shops, then there was not much reason to walk. It was easier to get in the car and drive….even if the destination was across the street.  In the newer paradigm, the priority is supposed to favor pedestrians and non-motorized transportation.

So, putting an apartment building in the center and densifying the suburbs is both an old, and new, concept.  It cannot come too soon for traditional suburbs, which are seeing the erosion of their commercial base and failing shopping malls. It is  estimated that that 20 enclosed malls have been shuttered over the last few years and there are another 60 on the endangered list.  A book called Retail Revolution: Will your Brick and Mortar Store Survive? posits that e-commerce is taking its bite and expenditures by middle-income shoppers are declining.

What may be overlooked in the declining sales numbers is that many of the middle-income shoppers are also Baby Boomers. Boomers are buying more online, contributing to e-commerce growth. At the same time, they are cutting back overall expenditures, because their families are grown and they have fewer, pressing purchases to make. Meanwhile, they need to save for retirement.

The retail community can hope that if the Boomers choose to move into these new style suburban apartments two trends will co-occur: First, Boomers will spend more of their leisure time, making purchases in the stores, restaurants, and entertainment centers. Also, some of the Boomers might hang on to jobs, and extend their working years by relocating near the office-park.  It all remains to be seen, but a denser suburbia is a glimmer of change that might not attract traffic (too much). It could advance a new place for Aging in Suburbia.

Boomer vs. Millennial @Home

millennial homes

Where would this sweet young couple, a Millennial buyer, prefer to live? According to realtors interviewed by the SF Chronicle (6/22/14)- it would would not be in the homes of Baby Boomers. “When Baby Boomers looked for a home many dreamed of a white picket fence and asafecommunity to raise a family.” The Millennials? They dream of a home that is move in ready, no  fixers; low maintenance, no green grass; location, location- near public transportation , shops, and proximity to work. With the exception of proximity to work (assuming they retired), it is not clear that the CURRENT preferences of the aging Boomers are all that different.

Make a Headline- Make it Walkable

sanramon

The SFO headline of 6/15/14  is optimistic:  “Renzo Piano drafts a model for walkable suburbs.” In  San Ramon, Contra Costa County (Ca.)  they have proclaimed a grand architectural vision. The architectural plans call for 70 retail spaces and a cineplex,  682,000 square feet of office space, and let’s not forget, 1,300 parking spaces! The parking spaces, per the architect, are “tucked within” one of the buildings (a.k.a, parking garage!).  There is also a plaza which is intended to be a multigenerational gathering place (a.k.a,  mall) A few blocks away, the architect has sketched plans for a  168 room  hotel and  488 residential units. That, one supposes, is the basis for the walkable city. But, in a city of 75,000 residents,  will 500 new downtown residences and 1,300 parking spaces truly “reinvent” suburbia or simply be another empty headline?

 

The Neighborhood Not

no entry-no exit
no entry-no exit

Driving in America will be a problem as the population ages. “Houses of Boom” recognizes the problem.

But, the issue is finding an alternative.  These  are sobering statistics from “www. smartgrowth america”:

  • Almost 40 percent of Americans over the age of 50 say their neighborhoods lack adequate sidewalks.
  • 55 percent report inadequate bike lanes or paths.
  • 48 percent have no comfortable place to wait for the bus (addendum: this assumes there is as bus!)

How will Boomers get from here to there- enjoyable and safely? In older suburban neighborhoods,  even Levittown, sidewalks were part of the infrastructure. And, access to public transportation, like rail, was feasible, albeit at a distance.  The newer suburbs lack transport redundancy and are built solely around car. Going forward, how will we?